Timber Risk Score: 70 / 100 in 2017. The Timber Legality Risk Assessment contains an evaluation of the risk of illegality in Swaziland for five categories and 21 sub-categories of law. We found:
- Specified risk for 6 sub-categories.
- Low risk for 5 sub-categories.
- No legal requirements for 10 sub-categories.
This page provides an overview of the legality risks related to timber produced in Swaziland.
33.8% (0.58 million ha) of Swaziland is covered by forests of which:
- About 77% is naturally-regenerated forest
- About 23% is planted forest.
Roundwood production totalled 2 million m3 in 2015. The forestry sector (including wood processing and pulp and paper) contributed US$ 64.5 million to the economy in 2011, which was nearly 2.0% of the GDP.
Several legality risks are present in Swaziland’s timber supply chains. The risks relate to legal rights to harvest, timber harvesting activities and trade and transport. If you are sourcing timber from Swaziland you should take care to ensure the risks identified are not present in your supply chains, or have been sufficiently mitigated.
This risk assessment was prepared between 2014-2018 according to the FSC-STD-40-005. The approved FSC Risk Assessment can be downloaded in the FSC Document Centre. ONLY Risk Assessments that have been formally reviewed and approved by FSC can be used by an FSC candidate or certified companies in risk assessments and will meet the FSC standards without further verification.
Score: 38 / 100 in 2018
Rank: 89 out of 180 countries in 2018
There are currently no armed conflicts in Swaziland according to the Council on Foreign Relations' Global Conflict Tracker.
CITES appendix II: Dalbergia armata, D. melanoxylon, Prunus africana
|Timber source||Description of source type|
On Swazi Nation Land that is leased to commercial operators. Permission from Minister of Agriculture and the Local Tribal Authority is required to harvest/clear, sell, and purchase timber products/forest/woodland. Primarily exotic species (mainly Acacia mearnsii).
On Private Freehold or Title Deed Land (TDL), plantations are privately owned and managed for commercial purposes. No permit required. Normally exotic species harvested in rotation, but native species are sometimes used.
Naturally regenerating forests
On Swazi Nation Land that is either leased to commercial operators or managed and harvested by customary owners. Permission from Minister of Agriculture and the Local Tribal Authority is required to harvest/clear, sell, and purchase timber. Primarily exotic species (mainly Acacia mearnsii).
|Natural forests or woodlands||
On Swazi Nation Land, natural forest or woodlands where indigenous species harvested for small scale and non-commercial use. No commercial source of timber. No commercial source of timber
On Private Freehold or Title Deed Land (TDL), natural forest or woodlands that are privately owned, not commercially harvested. No commercial source of timber
Risk assessment summary
Legal rights to harvest
Taxes and fees
Timber harvesting activities
Third parties' rights
Trade and transport
Mitigate the risks in your supply chain
Learn which actions we recommended to mitigate the risks associated with the timber sources from Swaziland.
Source Certified Materials
NEPCon believes that third party certification (for example FSC and PEFC certification) can provide strong assurances of the legality of the products they cover. Companies seeking to mitigate the risks of sourcing illegal timber should seek to purchase third party certified materials wherever possible.
While the European Timber Regulation does not include an automatic “green lane” for certified products, it does recognise the value of certification as a tool for risk assessment and mitigation. The European Commission says that companies “may rate credibly certified products as having negligible risk of being illegal, i.e. suitable for placing on the market with no further risk mitigation measures, provided that the rest of the information gathered and the replies to the risk assessment questions do not contradict such a conclusion.”
For more information on using certified materials in your due diligence, including how to assess whether a certification system meets EUTR requirements, see the page on Certification and Due Diligence.
Below is a summary of our recommended actions to mitigate the risks associated with timber sources from Swaziland.
1. Fully map your supply chain
- Our supply chain mapping tool can help you do this.
2. Obtain and verify documents
- Forest level documents
- Lease agreements
- Letters of resource ownership from the Chief or Tindyuna
- Legally established procedures for surveying, managing and protecting endangered or threatened species within the management unit shall be followed.
- Flora Protection Permits where protected species are being collected, felled.
- Environmental Compliance Certificate where projects are required to complete this
- Phytosanitary Certificates (for export of plant material)
- Water Use Permit
- Effluent Control Permit
- Project Compliance monitoring and reports where this is required by the environmental authority
- Grass burning permits where there is a need to burn grassland
- Nursery registration where the organisation has a nursery
- Waste Management License when water is disposed outside registered waste sites
- Effluent Control Permit
- Health and safety related documents
- Accident Register is kept up to date.
- There is evidence that the inspector has been notified of any accident resulting in a loss of more than 3 days.
- Documented evidence that:
- Hazards have been assessed and risks communicated to employees.
- Incidents and accidents are reported to regulating authorities.
- Health and Safety Representatives are appointed.
- There is a Health and Safety Committee and evidence of meetings.
- There are records of training and induction available
- Employment related documents
- Employment contracts are in place
- Trade and transport documents
- Import and exports permits. Products shall be correctly classified (type, custom code, species, quantities, qualities, etc.).
3. Consult stakeholders
- Staff confirm that:
- Persons involved in harvesting activities are covered by insurance
- Persons involved in harvesting activities hold required certificates of competence for the function they carry out
- Minimum ages are observed for all personnel involved in harvesting activities
- Minimum ages are observed for all personnel involved in hazardous work
- Stakeholders confirm that forced or compulsory labour is not involved in harvesting activities
4. Carry out on-site verification
- Confirm compliance with environmental legislation (sites and species protection)
5. Conduct targeted timber testing
- Conduct timber testing on samples of purchased material to verify the species or origin of timber, where appropriate